Liberalism has held positions in a variety of political ideologies over the centuries. Liberalism can be traced into the 18th Century, where commoners began to push against the political arrangements in Europe. The Brits seemed to embrace liberalism and positioned the government as representatives of the people. Unlike the French who felt that it was an attack on their monarch and rule.
According to Gaus, Courtland, & Schmidtz (2015), “The Fundamental Liberal Principle holds that restrictions on liberty must be justified”. When liberalism came about 1848 according to Shively (2014) the workers liked the values of this ideology. Some characteristics of liberalism are the belief of value in human personality and their equality, that individuals should be free to make choices and accept the consequences of their choices. According to the Libertarian Party (2016) “No individual, group, or government may initiate force against any other individual, group, or government”. Shively (2014), also commented that there should minimal government involvement into individual lives (p.30). This includes freedom of speech, religion, sexual orientation, and what we put in our bodies. The libertarian party also pledges that abortion is the individual’s decision.
According to the Libertarian Political Party, (2016) “prescribed role of government is to protect the rights of every individual including the right to life, liberty and property. Criminal laws should be limited in their application to violations of the rights of others through force or fraud, or to deliberate actions that place others involuntarily at significant risk of harm”.
The party also rejects the death penalty and believes in justified used of force in defense of one’s self, property, or life (Libertarian Political Party, 2016).
Conservatism is a political ideology that tends to stick to tradition in regards to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. Conservatisms can be traced to the French Revolution of 1789. Patterson (2008) wrote that conservatives believe that government need to be economical in its systems (less government), but use its ability to maintain the traditions of the union. Conservatism tends to be critical of proposals for profound social change. Some Conservatives tend to seek reform of society slowly over time. This ideology tends to seek organic changes to society versus a revolutionary approach. According to Shively (2014) believe that a society must consist of structure and order (p. 31). Basic conservative ideology believes in the preservation of personal wealth, private ownership, and individualism. True conservatism leans more religious structure, stricter in the punishment of criminals, and tends to not be accepting of homosexuals or minorities. Conservatives tend to be more supportive of the national sovereignty.
There are six types of conservatives promoting slightly different theories. The Cultural Conservatize tends to support the preserving the heritage of the nation or culture. The Social Conservatism philosophy tends to preserve norms, including social norms. The Religious Conservative sticks strictly to traditional values and tend to use religious teachings to promote campaigns to protect traditional values. The Fiscal Conservative supports economical prudence in regards to government also that the taxpayer should not solely support the burden. Paleo-conservatism is a philosophy promotes the normal values and traditions of regional, national and Western identity, also taut limited government and civil society. Tends to more hard lines against illegal immigration, communism, authoritarianism, social democracy and entitlement programs (Mormon Conservatives). The Neo-Conservative seemed to support the free trade and free market in the intent for economic growth though was against counter cultural involvement. The Bio-conservative was focused on the effects of technology on the good order of society and the traditions.
I have always been taught that socialism is primarily focused on economic status of the society and can be present in any type of system. When the liberal movement came about in the 1800’s. Socialism came about as ideology consisting of classes; Marx believed that there was no individualism only certain classes and that people of that class value was based solely on the value of that class (Shively, 2014). Shively (2014) wrote that this ideology believed that laborers are the oppressed since laborers work for the rich consequently creating the theory of profit being distributed among the workforce to balance individual wages/salaries. The Socialist party also stated that all persons should have access to basic public staples, food, and general services to allow for self-actualization. Industries must benefit the society as a whole, with a belief of cooperative ownership, economic democratic planning, and equal opportunity employment. Communist believe in elimination of class distinctions where socialism believe in a diminished class distinction derived more from political status. Most industries are owned by public cooperatives, and individuals are compensated based on the principle of individual contribution.
In 1919 Mussolini founded the Fascist party, according to History.com Staff, (2010) this “right-wing organization advocated Italian nationalism, had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents”. During World War II Mussolini had aggrements with Adolf Hitler, who based his countries stem off of Italies. The Facist belive that state must gain glory conquest and war, and the individual has no value outside of his or her role in promoting the glory of the State.
In a Fascist ideology the Government dictates the actions of industries, private ownership means little. Fascist believed in Darwinism; that preservation of a society favored certain races. The fascist government promotes exaggerated gender roles, racism, and centralized government control. This ideology generally will be a state ran by a dictator in control of one party.